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Upanishad, Veda

upaniṣad – The philosophy


The upaniṣads formulate the final section of the vedas. Unlike the previous sections of the veda, the upaniṣads almost exclusively deal with philosophical and theological subjects with no attention given to rituals. The term upaniṣad can be loosely translated as ‘treatise heard sitting next to a teacher’, thus the knowledge is exposed through conversations between sages and disciples concerning metaphysical subjects and the nature of reality.

The upaniṣads offer the earliest works in history which explore the existence and concept of the soul, God and nature. Unlike the saṁhitā portion of the vedas, the upaniṣads explore the idea of a divine being and introduce a new concept of an impersonal being named, ‘Brahman’.

According to the muktika upaniṣad there are altogether 108 upaniṣads, out of which eleven are regarded by later philosophical exponents and academics as authentic and unadulterated.

The eleven are:

1. aitareya upaniṣad
2. kena upaniṣad
3. īśa upaniṣad
4. kathā upaniṣad
5. muṇḍaka upaniṣad
6. praśna upaniṣad
7. śvetāsvatara upaniṣad
8. taittirīya upaniṣad
9. māṇḍukya upaniṣad
10. chāndogya upaniṣad
11. bṛhadāraṇyaka upaniṣad

The copyright of the article upaniṣad – The philosophy is owned by the Jigyasa Team. Permission to republish in print or online must be granted by the author in writing.


About Makwana

A student of Sanatan Vedic Dharma


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