Listen to Chapter 1 – The Yoga Of the Despondency of Arjuna:
|| atha śrīmadbhagavadgītā ||
atha prathamo’dhyāyaḥ | arjunaviṣādayogaḥ
dhṛtarāṣṭra uvāca | dharmakṣetre kurukṣetre samavetā yuyutsavaḥ |
māmakāḥ pāṇḍavāścaiva kimakurvata sañjaya ||1||
Dhritarashtra said: What did the sons of Pandu and also my people do when they had assembled together, eager for battle on the holy plain of Kurukshetra, O Sanjaya?
sañjaya uvāca |
dṛṣṭvā tu pāṇḍavānīkaṁ vyūḍhaṁ duryodhanastadā |
ācāryamupasaṁgamya rājā vacanamabravīt ||2||
Sanjaya said: Having seen the army of the Pandavas drawn up in battle array, King Duryodhana then approached his teacher (Drona) and spoke these words:
paśyaitāṁ pāṇḍuputrāṇāmācārya mahatīṁ camūm |
vyūḍhāṁ drupadaputreṇa tava śiṣyeṇa dhīmatā ||3||
Behold, O Teacher, this mighty army of the sons of Pandu, arrayed by the son of Drupada, thy wise disciple!
atra śūrā maheṣvāsā bhīmārjunasamā yudhi |
yuyudhāno virāṭaśca drupadaśca mahārathaḥ ||4||
Here are heroes, mighty archers, equal in battle to Bhima and Arjuna, Yuyudhana, Virata and Drupada, of the great car (mighty warriors),
dhṛṣṭaketuścekitānaḥ kāśirājaśca vīryavān |
purujitkuntibhojaśca śaibyaśca narapuṁgavaḥ ||5||
Drishtaketu, Chekitana and the valiant king of Kasi, Purujit, and Kuntibhoja and Saibya, the best of men,
yudhāmanyuśca vikrānta uttamaujāśca vīryavān |
saubhadro draupadeyāśca sarva eva mahārathāḥ ||6||
The strong Yudhamanyu and the brave Uttamaujas, the son of Subhadra (Abhimanyu, the son of Arjuna), and the sons of Draupadi, all of great chariots (great heroes).
asmākaṁ tu viśiṣṭā ye tānnibodha dvijottama |
nāyakā mama sainyasya saṁjñārthaṁ tānbravīmi te ||7||
Know also, O best among the twice-born, the names of those who are the most distinguished amongst ourselves, the leaders of my army! These I name to thee for thy information.
bhavānbhīṣmaśca karṇaśca kṛpaśca samitiñjayaḥ |
aśvatthāmā vikarṇaśca saumadattistathaiva ca ||8||
Thyself and Bhishma, and Karna and Kripa, the victorious in war; Asvatthama, Vikarna, and Jayadratha, the son of Somadatta.
anye ca bahavaḥ śūrā madarthe tyaktajīvitāḥ |
nānāśastrapraharaṇāḥ sarve yuddhaviśāradāḥ ||9||
And also many other heroes who have given up their lives for my sake, armed with various weapons and missiles, all well skilled in battle.
aparyāptaṁ tadasmākaṁ balaṁ bhīṣmābhirakṣitam |
paryāptaṁ tvidameteṣāṁ balaṁ bhīmābhirakṣitam ||10||
This army of ours marshalled by Bhishma is insufficient, whereas their army, marshalled by Bhima, is sufficient.
ayaneṣu ca sarveṣu yathābhāgamavasthitāḥ |
bhīṣmamevābhirakṣantu bhavantaḥ sarva eva hi ||11||
Therefore, do ye all, stationed in your respective positions in the several divisions of the army, protect Bhishma alone.
tasya sañjanayanharṣaṁ kuruvṛddhaḥ pitāmahaḥ |
siṁhanādaṁ vinadyoccaiḥ śaṅkhaṁ dadhmau pratāpavān ||12||
His glorious grandsire (Bhishma), the eldest of the Kauravas, in order to cheer Duryodhana, now roared like a lion and blew his conch.
tataḥ śaṅkhāśca bheryaśca paṇavānakagomukhāḥ |
sahasaivābhyahanyanta sa śabdastumulo’bhavat ||13||
Then (following Bhishma), conches and kettle-drums, tabors, drums and cow-horns blared forth quite suddenly (from the side of the Kauravas); and the sound was tremendous.
tataḥ śvetairhayairyukte mahati syandane sthitau |
mādhavaḥ pāṇḍavaścaiva divyau śaṅkhau pradadhmatuḥ ||14||
Then also, Madhava (Krishna), and the son of Pandu (Arjuna), seated in their magnificent chariot yoked with white horses, blew their divine conches.
pāñcajanyaṁ hṛṣīkeśo devadattaṁ dhanañjayaḥ |
pauṇḍraṁ dadhmau mahāśaṅkhaṁ bhīmakarmā vṛkodaraḥ ||15||
Hrishikesa blew the “Panchajanya” and Arjuna blew the “Devadatta”, and Bhima, the doer of terrible deeds, blew the great conch, “Paundra”.
anantavijayaṁ rājā kuntīputro yudhiṣṭhiraḥ |
nakulaḥ sahadevaśca sughoṣamaṇipuṣpakau ||16||
Yudhisthira, the son of Kunti, blew the “Anantavijaya”; and Sahadeva and Nakula blew the “Manipushpaka” and “Sughosha” conches.
kāśyaśca parameṣvāsaḥ śikhaṇḍī ca mahārathaḥ |
dhṛṣṭadyumno virāṭaśca sātyakiścāparājitaḥ ||17||
The king of Kasi, an excellent archer, Sikhandi, the mighty car-warrior, Dhristadyumna and Virata and Satyaki, the unconquered,
drupado draupadeyāśca sarvaśaḥ pṛthivīpate |
saubhadraśca mahābāhuḥ śaṅkhāndadhmuḥ pṛthakpṛthak ||18||
Drupada and the sons of Draupadi, O Lord of the Earth, and the son of Subhadra, the mighty-armed, all blew their respective conches!
sa ghoṣo dhārtarāṣṭrāṇāṁ hṛdayāni vyadārayat |
nabhaśca pṛthivīṁ caiva tumulo’bhyanunādayan ||19||
The tumultuous sound rent the hearts of Dhritarashtra’s party, making both heaven and earth resound.
atha vyavasthitāndṛṣṭvā dhārtarāṣṭrān kapidhvajaḥ |
pravṛtte śastrasampāte dhanurudyamya pāṇḍavaḥ ||20||
hṛṣīkeśaṁ tadā vākyamidamāha mahīpate |
Then, seeing all the people of Dhritarashtra’s party standing arrayed and the discharge of weapons about to begin, Arjuna, the son of Pandu, whose ensign was that of a monkey, took up his bow and said the following to Krishna, O Lord of the Earth!
arjuna uvāca |
senayorubhayormadhye rathaṁ sthāpaya me’cyuta ||21||
yāvadetānnirīkṣe’haṁ yoddhukāmānavasthitān |
kairmayā saha yoddhavyamasmin raṇasamudyame ||22||
Arjuna Uvaacha: In the middle of the two armies, place my chariot, O Krishna, so that I may behold those who stand here, desirous to fight, and know with whom I must fight when the battle begins.
yotsyamānānavekṣe’haṁ ya ete’tra samāgatāḥ |
dhārtarāṣṭrasya durbuddheryuddhe priyacikīrṣavaḥ ||23||
For I desire to observe those who are assembled here to fight, wishing to please in battle Duryodhana, the evil-minded.
sañjaya uvāca |evamukto hṛṣīkeśo guḍākeśena bhārata |
senayorubhayormadhye sthāpayitvā rathottamam ||24||
Sanjaya said: Being thus addressed by Arjuna, Lord Krishna, having stationed that best of chariots, O Dhritarashtra, in the midst of the two armies,
bhīṣmadroṇapramukhataḥ sarveṣāṁ ca mahīkṣitām |
uvāca pārtha paśyaitānsamavetānkurūniti ||25||
In front of Bhishma and Drona and all the rulers of the earth, said: “O Arjuna, behold now all these Kurus gathered together!”
tatrāpaśyatsthitānpārthaḥ pitṝnatha pitāmahān |
Then Arjuna beheld there stationed, grandfathers and fathers, teachers, maternal uncles, brothers, sons, grandsons and friends, too.
śvaśurānsuhṛdaścaiva senayorubhayorapi |
tānsamīkṣya sa kaunteyaḥ sarvānbandhūnavasthitān ||27||
kṛpayā parayāviṣṭo viṣīdannidamabravīt |
(He saw) fathers-in-law and friends also in both armies. The son of Kunti—Arjuna—seeing all these kinsmen standing arrayed, spoke thus sorrowfully, filled with deep pity.
arjuna uvāca |
dṛṣṭvemaṁ svajanaṁ kṛṣṇa yuyutsuṁ samupasthitam ||28||
sīdanti mama gātrāṇi mukhaṁ ca pariśuṣyati |
vepathuśca śarīre me romaharṣaśca jāyate ||29||
Seeing these, my kinsmen, O Krishna, arrayed, eager to fight,
My limbs fail and my mouth is parched up, my body quivers and my hairs stand on end!
gāṇḍīvaṁ sraṁsate hastāttvakcaiva paridahyate |
na ca śaknomyavasthātuṁ bhramatīva ca me manaḥ ||30||
The (bow) “Gandiva” slips from my hand and my skin burns all over; I am unable even to stand, my mind is reeling, as it were.
nimittāni ca paśyāmi viparītāni keśava |
na ca śreyo’nupaśyāmi hatvā svajanamāhave ||31||
And I see adverse omens, O Kesava! I do not see any good in killing my kinsmen in battle.
na kāṅkṣe vijayaṁ kṛṣṇa na ca rājyaṁ sukhāni ca |
kiṁ no rājyena govinda kiṁ bhogairjīvitena vā ||32||
For I desire neither victory, O Krishna, nor pleasures nor kingdoms! Of what avail is a dominion to us, O Krishna, or pleasures or even life?
yeṣāmarthe kāṅkṣitaṁ no rājyaṁ bhogāḥ sukhāni ca |
ta ime’vasthitā yuddhe prāṇāṁstyaktvā dhanāni ca ||33||
Those for whose sake we desire kingdoms, enjoyments and pleasures, stand here in battle, having renounced life and wealth.
ācāryāḥ pitaraḥ putrāstathaiva ca pitāmahāḥ |
mātulāḥ śvaśurāḥ pautrāḥ śyālāḥ sambandhinastathā ||34||
Teachers, fathers, sons and also grandfathers, grandsons, fathers-in-law, maternal uncles, brothers-in-law and relatives,—
etānna hantumicchāmi ghnato’pi madhusūdana |
api trailokyarājyasya hetoḥ kiṁ nu mahīkṛte ||35||
These I do not wish to kill, though they kill me, O Krishna, even for the sake of dominion over the three worlds, leave alone killing them for the sake of the earth!
nihatya dhārtarāṣṭrānnaḥ kā prītiḥ syājjanārdana |
By killing these sons of Dhritarashtra, what pleasure can be ours, O Janardana? Only sin will accrue by killing these felons.
tasmānnārhā vayaṁ hantuṁ dhārtarāṣṭrānsvabāndhavān |
svajanaṁ hi kathaṁ hatvā sukhinaḥ syāma mādhava ||37||
Therefore, we should not kill the sons of Dhritarashtra, our relatives; for, how can we be happy by killing our own people, O Madhava (Krishna)?
yadyapyete na paśyanti lobhopahatacetasaḥ |
kulakṣayakṛtaṁ doṣaṁ mitradrohe ca pātakam ||38||
Though they, with intelligence overpowered by greed, see no evil in the destruction of families, and no sin in hostility to friends,
kathaṁ na jñeyamasmābhiḥ pāpādasmānnivartitum |
kulakṣayakṛtaṁ doṣaṁ prapaśyadbhirjanārdana ||39||
Why should not we, who clearly see evil in the destruction of a family, learn to turn away from this sin, O Janardana (Krishna)?
kulakṣaye praṇaśyanti kuladharmāḥ sanātanāḥ |
dharme naṣṭe kulaṁ kṛtsnamadharmo’bhibhavatyuta ||40||
In the destruction of a family, the immemorial religious rites of that family perish; on the destruction of spirituality, impiety overcomes the whole family.
adharmābhibhavātkṛṣṇa praduṣyanti kulastriyaḥ |
strīṣu duṣṭāsu vārṣṇeya jāyate varṇasaṅkaraḥ ||41||
By prevalence of impiety, O Krishna, the women of the family become corrupt and, women becoming corrupted, O Varsneya (descendant of Vrishni), there arises intermingling of castes!
saṅkaro narakāyaiva kulaghnānāṁ kulasya ca |
patanti pitaro hyeṣāṁ luptapiṇḍodakakriyāḥ ||42||
Confusion of castes leads to hell the slayers of the family, for their forefathers fall, deprived of the offerings of rice-ball and water.
doṣairetaiḥ kulaghnānāṁ varṇasaṅkarakārakaiḥ |
utsādyante jātidharmāḥ kuladharmāśca śāśvatāḥ ||43||
By these evil deeds of the destroyers of the family, which cause confusion of castes, the eternal religious rites of the caste and the family are destroyed.
utsannakuladharmāṇāṁ manuṣyāṇāṁ janārdana |
narake niyataṁ vāso bhavatītyanuśuśruma ||44||
We have heard, O Janardana, that inevitable is the dwelling for an unknown period in hell for those men in whose families the religious practices have been destroyed!
aho bata mahatpāpaṁ kartuṁ vyavasitā vayam |
yadrājyasukhalobhena hantuṁ svajanamudyatāḥ ||45||
Alas! We are involved in a great sin in that we are prepared to kill our kinsmen through greed for the pleasures of a kingdom.
yadi māmapratīkāramaśastraṁ śastrapāṇayaḥ |
dhārtarāṣṭrā raṇe hanyustanme kṣemataraṁ bhavet ||46||
If the sons of Dhritarashtra, with weapons in hand, should slay me in battle, unresisting and unarmed, that would be better for me.
sañjaya uvāca | evamuktvārjunaḥ saṅkhye rathopastha upāviśat |
visṛjya saśaraṁ cāpaṁ śokasaṁvignamānasaḥ ||47||
Sanjaya said:Having thus spoken in the midst of the battlefield, Arjuna, casting away his bow and arrow, sat down on the seat of the chariot with his mind overwhelmed with sorrow.
om tatsaditi śrīmadbhagavadgītāsūpaniṣatsu brahmavidyāyāṁ yogaśāstre śrīkṛṣṇārjunasaṁvāde
arjunaviṣādayogo nāma prathamo’dhyāyaḥ ||
Thus in the Upanishads of the glorious Bhagavad Gita, the science of the Eternal, the scripture of Yoga, the dialogue between Sri Krishna and Arjuna, ends the first discourse entitled:
“The Yoga Of the Despondency of Arjuna”
Translation: Bhagavad Gita by Sri Swami Sivananda